SCAFFOLD FOR
CELL CULTURE

Extracellular collagen matrix
Extracellular collagen matrix
Pore sizes – from 20 to 30 µm
Thickness – from 0.2 to 0.5 mm
Area – any
(at the request of the customer, a construct of any required size can be made, since the layering technology of raw material is used)

Extracellular collagen matrix is a natural biological scaffold and matrix for cell settlement. The matrix is a framework of collagen and elastin and surrounds cells in almost all tissues. Extracellular collagen matrix regulates cell adhesion, differentiation, proliferation and migration of cells. The biomaterial was obtained by chemical-biological treatment of tissue of xenogenic origin — SIS (small intestine submucose). The patented technology of chemical and biological processing of raw materials allows effectively removing cellular elements and preserving the natural architectonics of fibrillar proteins. Decellularized biomaterial extracellular collagen matrix has excellent biocompatible properties. It consists of fibrillar proteins (mainly type I collagen and elastin) that provide elastic and strong spatial architectonics. Contains in its composition of biologically active molecules, which give the product's bioactive properties. Glycoproteins (fibronectin and laminin) promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Glycosaminoglycans (hyaluronic acid and chondroitin-sulfate A) reduce inflammation, provide binding and attachment of cells. Proteoglycans (decorin and heparan sulfate) prevent the formation of scar tissue, participate in the fibrillar regulation of collagen and stimulate angiogenesis.

The product is designed for use in laboratories of research institutes in the field of health or biological profile, specializing in cell or tissue engineering and cell culture cultivation.
What are scaffolds and where are they used?
Scaffolds are usually called 3-D substrates-carriers for the spatial formation of the future tissue or organ. They are used in modern regenerative medicine both independently and for the manufacture of tissue engineering structures. Fabric engineering structures manufactured at the present stage can be divided into the following three groups:
  1. Directly scaffolds, which are "empty" matrices for adhesion and proliferation of cells migrating from the surrounding tissues of the implant.
  2. Targeted delivery systems are scaffolds whose bioactivity is artificially increased by including various biologically active substances in their composition, in particular growth factors, which are gradually released from the matrix, which provides local stable concentrations of pro-regenerative agents.
  3. Tissue engineering structures, i.e. scaffolds with pre-grown in vitro cell cultures in their composition.
What are they made of?
Currently, there is a wide variety of materials and technologies for making scaffolds. Depending on the intended type of fabric, the choice of materials and methods of its manufacture may vary. Natural materials have a biological nature and biological activity, but they can carry an antigenic load with poor processing. Synthetic - biologically-compatible, can have the necessary mechanical and strength characteristics, have simplicity and cheapness of manufacture. However, they can not repeat the natural structure and are not metabolized by natural processes. Hybrids can have both properties.
What are the advantages of natural (ECM) scaffolds?
They have a biological nature and are involved in the mechanism according to "natural laws", biologically-compatible, controlled elastic-deformative characteristics and a controlled rate of resorption.
Despite the fact that some authors point out the disadvantages of such scaffolds, they are widely used in the world and the share of their use in regenerative medicine is growing.
The philosophy of the use of ECM-scaffolds
In natural conditions, cells are located in the extracellular matrix, which is a complex of organic and inorganic compounds that fill the space between cells, which consists of three main components: collagen, proteoglycans and glycoproteins. The latter in turn, perform the functions of receptors in the "production" of the intercellular matrix, facilitate the attachment and growth of cells. The spatial arrangement of cells and regenerative potential are provided through autoregulation, thus maintaining the environment for a functional optimum. Taking into account the natural tissue organization, one of the main directions of tissue engineering is the development and manufacture of 3-D volumetric implants-scaffolds. Modern scaffolds are analogous to the extracellular matrix.
Approaches to processing ECM-scaffolds
Despite the fact that some authors point out the disadvantages of such scaffolds, they are widely used in the world and the share of their use in regenerative medicine is growing.
Raw materials for manufacturing ECM-scaffolds
The source of manufacture can be various fabrics of natural origin it can be both xenogenic and allogeneic biological tissues that have undergone appropriate processing to endow the biomaterial with the necessary properties.
The most common material for making a scaffold
SIS (small intestine submucosa) is the submucosal base of the pig's small intestine. This material is gaining popularity among all manufacturers of implantable medical devices. Its promise and popularity is based on its unique properties. SIS-scaffold after "smart" processing contains two of the three main components necessary for tissue regeneration: matrix frame and biologically active components. After implantation of the SIS-product, the components provoke stimulation of the body's cells. This scaffold directs the patient's own tissues to regenerate and form healthy tissue.
SIS-scaffold. Forms of manufacture
The following forms of ECM-scaffold can be obtained — sheet, powder, gel. Each form has its own advantages and disadvantages.
SIS-scaffold. Leaf form
SIS-scaffold. Unique composition
It contains type I and III collagen, elastin, glycosaminoglycans (heparin, chondroitin sulfate A) and proteoglycans (decorin, heparin-sulfate), which provide active adhesion, cell proliferation, migration and binding, regulation of the fibrillar structure of collagen and active angiogenesis.
SIS-scaffold. Behavior
Due to the presence of residual decorin, it does not form scars and adhesions, after implantation it is "populated with cells" of the recipient, very quickly vascularized and transformed into the surrounding tissue. It is a favorable matrix for cell population and growth. The manufacturing technology does not use synthetic or chemical cross-sectional intermolecular cross-linking.
SIS-scaffold. Physical and mechanical properties
An interesting feature of this material is also its strength characteristics. A comparative study of the physical and mechanical properties of the ECM-construct and the widely used xenopericard shows that the parameters, despite the thickness, are not only not inferior, but by some criteria they are superior to the widely used xenopericard.
SIS-SCAFFOLD and stem cells
ECM-material has excellent biological compatibility and serves as a favorable substrate for the growth of stem cells