In vivo, cells of living tissues are located in the extracellular matrix, which is a complex of organic and inorganic compounds that fill the space between cells. The extracellular matrix consists of three main components: structural collagen, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins. The latter, in turn, act as receptors in the "production" of the intercellular matrix, ensure cell attachment and growth, and induce cell differentiation and migration. The concept for the development "Chondro-SCAFFOLD" laid on this essential principle.
The product is a three-dimensional volumetric implantable biomaterial - a complete equivalent of the extracellular matrix - which serves as a base material for cartilage tissue. The product has a natural tissue organization, replicates the composition and architectonics of structural molecules, and has natural biologically active inductors.
The raw material for Chondro-SCAFFOLD is a highly purified extracellular xenogenic matrix - pSIS (porcine small intestine submucosa). The patented multistage technology of chemical and biological treatment of raw materials allows the complete removal of cellular elements, and simultaneously preserve the natural architecture of fibrillar proteins and the presence of biological molecules. The latter endows the biomaterial with natural background induction features for tissue repair. Among proteins, there are glycoproteins (fibronectin and laminin) that promote adhesion, proliferation, and migration of cells; glucosaminoglycans (hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate A) that reduce inflammation, provide cell binding and attachment; proteoglycans (decorin and heparan-sulfate) that prevent scar tissue formation, participate in fibrillary regulation of collagen, stimulate angiogenesis.
Mechanism of conduct
Scaffolds based on the extracellular matrix are successfully used in regenerative medicine for the cultivation of stem cells - fibroblasts and mesenchymal stromal cells of bone marrow. Additionally, pSIS-scaffold is an ideal matrix that favors autologous chondrogenesis. The Chondro-SCAFFOLD membrane is incorporated by the recipient's cells within a short period of time and is completely transformed (5 to 7 weeks) into a healthy hyaline-like tissue without scarring or adhesions.
The membrane has excellent tensile strength characteristics. Testing carried out on the INSTRON-5944 BIO PULS machine demonstrated comparable results on the elastic deformation parameters of the pSIS-based matrix and xenopericardium, which is widely used in repair surgery. The product is resistant to cutting through by a surgical thread, whereas the structure of the fibers provides high resistance to stretching and tearing. Chondro-SCAFFOLD membrane can be fixed with a suture surgical material or surgical glue.